Thursday, January 6, 2011

Continuing Revelation and the Latter-Day Saint Response

January 6, 2011
by Tim Barker

The Need for Continuing Revelation

One Latter-day Saint scripture that mainstream Christianity takes particular issue with is the 8th Article of Faith, in The Pearl of Great Price.  It states: "We believe the Bible to be the word of God as far as it is translated correctly; we also believe the Book of Mormon to be the word of God" (AoF 1:8).  Traditional Christianity holds the belief that the Bible is inerrant and sufficient, that is, there is no deficiency in the text. This position requires unqualified acceptance of the entire text as the word of God.1  In contrast to this position, the Prophet Joseph stated that from "sundry revelations which had been received, it was apparent that many important points touching the salvation of men, had been taken from the Bible, or lost before it was compiled."2  Obviously, the Latter-day Saint position dismisses the notion that the Bible is inerrant and that it, alone, is sufficient. This perspective began to emerge while Joseph Smith was contemplating which Christian church he should join. After being unable to reconcile why "these religious systems...were all so different; but nevertheless all drawn from the scripture of truth [the Bible],"3 he determined that God was not the author of such confusion. When considering that "all could not be right, and that God could not be the author of so much confusion[,] I determined to investigate the subject more fully, believing that if God had a church it would not be split up into factions, and that if he taught one society to worship one way, and administer in one set of ordinances, he would not teach another principles which were diametrically opposed."4

In search of answers, Joseph turned to the Bible, wherein he was led to inquire directly with the Lord (James 1:5). The result of this inquiry led to one of the greatest events in mankind's history, the personal appearance of God the Father, and His Son Jesus Christ, to Joseph Smith (JS-H 1:15-20).5 This is commonly known among Latter-day Saints as Joseph Smith's "First Vision." From this event and subsequent theophanies, it became apparent that revelation was not limited to the ancients, and further, that God had more to reveal to mankind. In 1842, Joseph wrote that "We believe all that God has revealed, all that He does now reveal, and we believe that He will yet reveal many great and important truths pertaining to the kingdom of God (AoF 1:9).The reality of continuing revelation implies that Biblical soteriology is not complete and all encompassing.   

Why is continuing revelation important to salvation?

The Prophet Joseph Smith declared that "salvation cannot come without revelation."7 In an article prepared for publication by the Prophet in the Church's organ in 1832, The Evening and Morning Star, he encouraged the saints to "search the scriptures--search the revelations which we publish, and ask your Heavenly Father, in the name of His Son Jesus Christ, to manifest the truth unto you, and if you do it with an eye single to his glory nothing doubting, He will answer you by the power of His Holy Spirit. You will then know for yourselves and not for another. You will then not be dependent on man for the knowledge of God; nor will there be any room for speculation. No; for when men receive their instruction from Him that made them, they know how He will save them."8 The "more sure word of prophecy" as mentioned by Peter in scripture (2 Pet 1:19), means, according to latter-day revelation, "a man's knowing that he is sealed up unto eternal life, by revelation and the spirit of prophecy, through the power of the Holy Priesthood" (D&C 131:5).  Personal revelation relates to an individual's spiritual knowledge, spiritual standing, and relationship to God.  However, revelation to the Church as a whole, is equally important.

The Apostle Paul wrote to the Saints in Ephesus, stating that the Lord "gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pasters and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: that we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive..." (Ephesians 4:11-14).  Until the Saints are perfected in Christ and are unified, there is a continuing need for Apostles, Prophets, and other church leaders.  This is an important key, because the purpose of an Apostle ("one sent forth") was to be an ordained witness of the Lord (of "his resurrection" - Acts 1:21-26), and Prophets were to reveal the will of the Lord (Amos 3:7).  This wasn't a selected body of scholars and intellectuals, but a body of disciples who were to be led by the Spirit of the Lord (John 14:26; 15:26).  Both the Saints and the Church leaders were to obtain revelation.

How is revelation received?

While the example of Joseph's visitation from God the Father and His Son is one form of revelation, there are numerous ways in which revelation can be received. Heavenly visitation has provided certain prophets and other individuals with visual confirmation and audible instruction. The scriptures indicate that revelation is received through dreams and visions. Most frequently, however, revelation is received through the Holy Ghost.9 The Prophet Moroni taught that the Holy Ghost would reveal the truth of all things (Moroni 10:3-5). President David O. McKay taught that "some evidences [i.e., the witness of the Spirit - 1 John 5:6] were stronger even than that of sight."10 This principle was elaborated upon by Presidents Joseph Fielding Smith and Harold B. Lee. President Smith stated:

The question frequently arises: "Is it necessary for the members of the Council of the Twelve to see the Savior in order to be an apostle?" It is their privilege to see him if occasion requires, but the Lord has taught that there is a stronger witness than seeing a personage, even of the Son of God, in a vision. I wish we could get this clear in the minds of members of the Church...the seeing, even the Savior, does not leave as deep an impression in the mind as does the testimony of the Holy Ghost to the spirit....What is the lesson to be learned from this? That the impressions on the soul that come from the Holy Ghost are far more significant than a vision. It is where Spirit speaks to spirit, and the imprint upon the soul is far more difficult to erase. Every member of the Church should have the impressions on his soul made by the Holy Ghost that Jesus is the Son of God indelibly pictured so that they cannot be forgotten. We read that it is the Spirit that giveth life.11
Similarly, President Lee stated that, "Not many have seen the Savior face to face here in mortality, but there is no one of you who has been blessed to receive the gift of the Holy Ghost after baptism but that may have a perfect assurance of his existence as though you had seen."12 This perfect assurance is what the natural man assumes can be obtained only by literally seeing the Savior. Those who know better have stated otherwise (see John 20:25-29).

What is the role of the Holy Ghost?

A listing of the functions of the Holy Ghost, as defined in scripture is enumerated below:13

Bears record of the Father and the Son (3 Nephi 28:11)
Gives prophecies to holy men (2 Peter 1:21; Luke 1:67)
Bestows knowledge (D&C 121:26)
Inspires men (D&C 21:2)
Allows men to speak with the "tongue of angels" (2 Nephi 32:2)
Provides direction in conducting church, preaching, exhorting, praying, supplicating, and singing (Moroni 6:9; D&C 20:45)
Gives power to speak by, and carry the Spirit's influence to others (2 Nephi 33:1)
Gives discretion and discernment (Acts 15:28; D&C 46:16)
Gives words in writing (D&C 124:4)
Teaches the will of the Lord (D&C 124:5)
Provides the gifts of the Spirit (Acts 19:6)
Manifests all things expedient unto the children of men (D&C 18:18)
Gives joy (Romans 14:17)
Gives utterance (2 Nephi 28:4)
Remission of sins (2 Nephi 31:17)
Gives visions that we may see and hear (1 Nephi 10:17)
Unfolds the mysteries of God (1 Nephi 10:19)
Gives authority to speak (1 Nephi 10:22)
Gives the Word of the Lord (Moroni 8:7)
Show us all things that we should do (1 Nephi 32:5)
Reveals commandments (Acts 1:2)
Provides direction (Acts 13:2-4)
Comforts (Moroni 8:26)
Fills us with hope and perfect love (Moroni 8:26)
Manifests the truth (Moroni 10:4)
Teaches all truth (Moroni 10:5; John 14:26)
Teaches repentance (Moses 5:14)
Teaches us what to say (Luke 10:12)
Allows us to see God and the Son (Acts 7:55)
Makes men overseers (Acts 20:28)
Shows us all things and teaches the peaceable things of the kingdom (D&C 39:6)
Brings all things to our remembrance (John 14:26)
The Lord manifests himself to us through the Holy Ghost (2 Nephi 26:13)
Sanctifies us (Alma 13:12)
Reveals to us (Luke 2:26)

It is clear that the purpose of the Holy Ghost is to make us holy, like the Only Begotten Son who is perfect. This is done by teaching us righteous principles and giving us direction that we may be led by the will of God, just as Christ followed the will of God in all things. Joseph Smith taught that "no man can receive the Holy Ghost without receiving revelations. The Holy Ghost is a revelator."14

Personal Revelation and Church Revelation

Early in Church history, a precedent was set regarding the order of priesthood with respect to receiving revelation. Hiram Page had been receiving revelations and sharing them with other members. Joseph Smith received a revelation regarding the subject, noting that "these things have not been appointed unto him [Hiram], neither shall anything be appointed unto any of this church contrary to the church covenants. For all things must be done in order, and by common consent in the church, by the prayer of faith" (D&C 28:12-13). Within the same revelation the Lord had previously stated that "no one shall be appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this church excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun." as well as his successors (D&C 28:2,7). Joseph's biographer Richard Bushman stated that "Joseph recognized the danger of the competing revelations. Acknowledging every visionary outburst could splinter the church." With respect to the Articles and Covenants of the church (D&C 20), they had "laid out procedures and leadership structure that inhibited erratic claims, the downfall of other charismatic religious groups." Bushman later states:

Even though he was the seer and God's spokesman to the Church, Joseph wanted his followers to experience God as he did....In an inexplicable contradiction, Joseph was designated as the Lord's prophet, and yet every man was to voice scripture [D&C 68:3-4], everyone to see God. That conundrum lies at the heart of Joseph Smith's Mormonism. The amplification of authority at the center was meant to increase the authority of everyone, as if the injection of power at the core energized the whole system. Although the Prophet's ability to speak for God put his supreme authority beyond dispute [D&C 132:7; D&C 107:8-9, 18-19, 65-66, 91-92], power was simultaneously distributed to every holder of the priesthood and ultimately to every member....Though he was Moses [D&C 28:2] and they were Israel, all the Lord's people were prophets.15
While revelation is available to every member, still there is a distinction between personal revelations and authoritative revelations for the church as a whole. Elder Oaks discussed this important issue in our last General Conference. He stated that there is a personal line of revelation, as well as a priesthood line of revelation. Describing these lines, he states that "the personal line is of paramount importance in personal decisions and in the governance of the family. Unfortunately, some members of our church underestimate the need for this direct, personal line. Responding to the undoubted importance of prophetic leadership--the priesthood line, which operates principally to govern heavenly communications on Church matters--some seek to have their priesthood leaders make personal decisions for them, decisions they should make for themselves by inspiration through their personal line. Personal decisions and family governance are principally a matter for the personal line."16

Regarding the subject of salvation, in connection with revelation, Brigham Young similarly discussed the heavy reliance of saints upon church leadership for excessive guidance. President Young told the Saints:

I am more afraid that this people have so much confidence in their leaders that they will not inquire for themselves of God whether they are led by him. I am fearful they settle down in a state of blind self-security, trusting their eternal destiny in the hands of their leaders with a reckless confidence that in itself would thwart the purposes of God in their salvation, and weaken that influence they could give to their leaders, did they know for themselves, by the revelations of Jesus, that they are led in the right way. Let every man and woman know, by the whispering of the Spirit of God to themselves, whether their leaders are walking in the path the Lord dictates, or not."17
It should be noted that Brigham was not suggesting that he was leading them astray, or that future leaders would lead the church astray, after all, Wilford Woodruff recorded Brigham sermonizing that, "the Lord would not permit him nor any other man to lead this people astray. If the leaders were to do wrong the Lord would take them away. If an Apostle did not magnify his calling, the Lord would remove him and not permit him to lead the people astray."18 The point of President Young's comment is that individuals need to obtain the spirit of revelation for themselves, as it is essential in obtaining salvation, and serves to strengthen the church as a whole.

How do we identify the witness of the Holy Ghost?

As noted by Paul, the impressions of the Holy Ghost have a profound effect upon the way we feel. He describes the fruits of the Spirit as "love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance..." (Galatians 5:22-23), which is "in all goodness and righteousness and truth" (Ephesians 5:9). Since there are not many explanations as to how Biblical prophets, apostles, and others identified the presence of the Spirit, the result has been varied interpretations of application throughout Christianity.19 Fortunately, as prophesied within the Book of Mormon, doctrinal issues such as this one, are given clarity through additional scripture (1 Nephi 15:14; 2 Nephi 3:12). For example, while Elijah heard a "still small voice" (1 Kings 19:11-13), Nephi clarifies that this still small voice is something to be felt, rather than audibly heard (1 Nephi 17:45; also see 3 Nephi 11:3-7). A revelation through Joseph Smith to Oliver Cowdery, indicated that the Lord would give Oliver revelation by speaking to his mind and his heart by the Holy Ghost (D&C 8:2), and also that confirmation, or the witness of truth, would come through a burning in the bosom (D&C 9:8). This adds some clarity to the New Testament scripture regarding the two Apostles on the road to Emmaus who felt their hearts burn within them as Christ taught them and opened the scriptures to their understanding (Luke 24:13-34).

There is a risk, however, that we may mistakenly identify our own emotions or thoughts as being divine inspiration or confirmation. For example, Christ spoke of the peace that comes from the Comforter (John 14:25-26), versus the peace given by the world. While the source is clearly identifiable at some times, at other times the fruit of the spirit is more subtle and more difficult to distinguish between the source of emotion. It is important to note that these feelings are fruits of the Spirit, or rather, that which the Spirit produces within us. Joseph Smith taught that "by learning the Spirit of God and understanding it, you may grow into the principle of revelation, until you become perfect in Christ Jesus."20

Continuing Revelation and the Latter-Day Saint Response

As Joseph indicated that learning the Spirit of God is a prerequisite to growing into the principle of revelation, this may partially account for the differences in opinion within the church with respect to interpretations of gospel principles and doctrine. Generally, this occurs because the Lord reveals truths to us, line upon line, and precept upon precept (2 Nephi 28:30; Isaiah 28:9-13; D&C 98:12). Every Latter-Day Saint is at a different level of spiritual maturity, and understanding of doctrines and principles will vary based on the lines and precepts revealed to each individual.  This is why the other line of revelation, the priesthood line, as discussed by Elder Oaks is so important.

These same principles apply to the priesthood line as well, i.e., the spirit of revelation through the Holy Ghost is the guiding influence. In a revelation to the church, the Lord said, "wherefore, meaning the church, thou shalt give heed unto all his words and commandments which he shall give unto you as he receiveth them, walking in all holiness before me; for his word ye shall receive, as if from my own mouth, in all patience and faith" (D&C 21:4-5). As it is the responsibility of the President of the High Priesthood to obtain revelation for the church (D&C 107:18-19), so this responsibility is passed down to each successive Presiding High Priest (i.e., the Prophet, Seer, and Revelator). In response to an inquiry from Martin Van Buren as to "wherein we differed in our religion from the other religions of the day. Brother Joseph said we differed in mode of baptism, and the gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. We considered that all other considerations were contained in the gift of the Holy Ghost."21

Elder Oaks continued his discussion on the lines of revelation by saying that "the priesthood line is the channel by which God has spoken to His children through the scriptures in times past. And it is this line through which He currently speaks through the teachings and counsel of living prophets and apostles and other inspired leaders."22 It is this line of revelation that differs from other Christian religions, and is the means for obtaining continuing revelation with respect to the church and the gospel as a whole. Through this line we have received numerous revelations, both canonical and non-canonical. Both lines of revelation bear the same disparity in that divine revelation is claimed by fallible people. Both are essential for salvation, and the lack of revelation through the Holy Spirit in either line will lead us astray. The canonized sermon of President Woodruff, however, informs us that the church will never be led astray (D&C: Official Declaration 1).  This is based on the idea that we are currently in the last dispensation preparatory to the second advent of the Savior.23  As such, we gain assurance regarding the ultimate direction of the priesthood line. This methodology is paradoxical in that it requires a personal revelation to know of the truthfulness of the priesthood revelation. No empirical means can be devised to test the reality of such assertions, but we are also to understand that the Lord's ways are not our ways, and that His ways are higher than our ways (Isaiah 55:8-9).  If we expect to understand the things of God, we must obtain answers according to the Lord's way of providing them; empirical methods are only supplementary.

While the priesthood line is, in part, for the purpose of revealing doctrine, it is clear that not every utterance from a Prophet or an Apostle is a divine revelation. President Marion G. Romney, in response to a question regarding evolution, stated that "I don't suppose that any two minds in the world understand exactly alike any statement on any subject. The General Authorities of the Church are, of course, like all other men, different in their personalities. However, on the fundamentals they are in accord..."24 Where revelations have been received, and we have felt the Spirit testify of their truth, we are often left to ourselves to obtain an understanding of the meaning of such revelations, or to obtain a witness regarding the interpretation or explanation of a revelation provided by General Authorities. The idea that General Authorities may teach their own perspectives or opinions should not be alarming, since we have already noted that all are fallible.  Only one perfect person ever lived, the Holy One of Israel, and nobody can, or should be, held to that same standard. Unfortunately, this is something that is overlooked, constantly by Mormon critics, and occasionally by Latter-Day Saints.  If an Apostle should state something and later correct themselves, or correct another General Authority's teachings at a later time, it does not negate the holy calling of the Lord's anointed, rather, it illustrates that continuing revelation is operating at the highest levels of the Church. 

It should be noted that the strength or inspiration may vary from one revelation to another, and as such, the mingling of imperfect interpretations of divine revelation may result in imperfect communication of a divine revelation. For example, at the local level, a Bishop might have a need to fill two positions within a ward. He may have subtle impressions regarding who should be called to fill one position, and vary strong impressions regarding whom to call to the other position. Doctrinally speaking, the process is the same. Some revelations have been received that clearly define certain principles or truths, whereas, for other subjects little revelation has been received, and we must find meaning in what has been revealed and exercise judgment in reconciling these revelations with other known truths. Such is the case with teachings from the General Authorities. At some times they, as well as we, may be led very clearly by the Holy Spirit, and at other times, judgment is used and explanations are provided based on their understandings. 

So how do we, as Latter-Day Saints respond to these circumstances?  Elder Oaks continued his discourse, stating:
Some members or former members of our church fail to recognize the importance of the priesthood line. They underestimate the importance of the Church and its leaders and its programs. Relying entirely on the personal line, they go their own way, purporting to define doctrine and to direct competing organizations contrary to the teachings of prophet-leaders. In this they mirror the modern hostility to what is disparagingly called “organized religion.” Those who reject the need for organized religion reject the work of the Master, who established His Church and its officers in the meridian of time and who reestablished them in modern times.25
While some members incorrectly hold the Apostles to the same standard as the Savior (infallible), the opposite is true as well - some members undermine the Apostles because of their fallibility.  I would add to Elder Oaks comment, that these members also fail to recognize the importance of the priesthood line, and "go their own way."  I believe the appropriate approach is to recognize the divine appointment of the Apostles, and then to not get hung up when some of their fallibility becomes transparent.  It is the same principle that exists with respect to the Latter-Day Saint understanding of the 8th Article of Faith.  While mainstream Christianity disapproves of the verbiage that the Bible is correct "as far as it is translated correctly,"  Latter-Day Saints recognize that the book is inspired, yet it still contains errors.  While some Christians go so far as to say that the Bible's authority stands or falls on its infallibility,26 Latter-Day Saints recognize that divine words have passed through fallible hands, and therefore, reliance on the Spirit for instruction is essential, although that instruction may be clearer at some times and more vague at others.  I can personally accept the Bible as being divinely inspired, and realize that not everything in its pages is accurate, or that it is complete.  Similarly, I can personally accept the divine appointments of Latter-Day Saint Apostles, while recognizing that not every word spoken is literally passed through these disciples from God to the Saints.  However, I embrace the fact that these men are called of God and ordained to holy callings, and I am better off accepting their teachings (and seeking confirmation of their teachings through the Spirit), then playing the doubting Thomas.

1 While there are various positions regarding inerrancy and sufficiency of the Bible, I am asserting that these concepts are held by mainstream Christianity, and have been held throughout traditional Christianity (i.e., Catholicism and Protestantism). Certainly the degree to which the Bible is inerrant and sufficient may vary among individual Bible believers, however, it would require an extensive study to document any authoritative pronouncements on this subject (assuming that identification of acceptable authoritative figures could be found), which is beyond the scope of this study. The fact that no texts have been added to the canon since the formation of the accepted Catholic and Protestant Bibles, indicates as much. See this wiki article for additional discussion.
2 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, by Joseph Fielding Smith, Ed. (Deseret News Press, SLC, UT, 1965), 9-10
3 The Teachings of Joseph Smith, Larry E. Dahl and Donald Q. Cannon, Eds. (Bookcraft, Salt Lake City, UT, 1998), 265. This is taken from Orson Hyde's pamphlet, A Cry From the Wilderness, A Voice From the Dust of the Earth.
4 The Teachings of Joseph Smith, 267. This is taken from Joseph Smith's letter to John Wentworth, editor of the Chicago Democrat, dated March 1, 1842.
5 For a harmony of the first vision accounts, see Elden Watson's Joseph Smith's First Vision - A Harmony.  Also see "Joseph Smith's Recitals of the First Vision," by Milton V. Backman, Jr., Ensign, January 1985, 8.
6 "Church History," by Joseph Smith, Times and Seasons, 3/9 (March 1, 1842):709-710
7 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 160
8 As cited, in Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 11-12 (emphasis added)
9 See the following scriptures: Luke 2:26; John 14:26; John 15:26; Moroni 10:3-5; Galatians 5:22; Ephesians 5:9; D&C 20:26; D&C 68:3-4. Also see President James E. Faust's, "Communion With the Holy Spirit," Ensign (March 2002), 3-4
10 David O. McKay and the Rise of Modern Mormonism, Gregory A. Prince (University of Utah Press, Logan, Utah, 2005), 38
11 Seek Ye Earnestly..., by Joseph Fielding Smith (Deseret Book Company, Salt Lake City, UT, 1972), 213-214
12 Youth and the Church, by Harold B. Lee (The Deseret News Press, Salt Lake City, UT, 1945), 55
13 Since the scriptures cited are either summarized, paraphrased, or quoted, I did not link the reference to the online scriptures; however, all canonized scripture is available online here.
14 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 328
15 Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling, Richard L. Bushman and Jed Woodworth (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, NY, 2005), 121, 175
16"Two Lines of Communication," by Elder Dallin H. Oaks, 180th Semi-Annual General Conference, October 2010. This talk is perhaps one of the greatest discussions regarding the roles and needs of personal revelation and priesthood revelation. I highly recommend this talk for a wonderfully articulate and spiritually uplifting treatment of this important topic. Additionally, Elder David A. Bednar's talk later that same day, entitled "Receive the Holy Ghost," should also be consulted and studied in connection with this topic.
17 Journal of Discourses: Delivered by President Brigham Young, His Two Counselors, The Twelve Apostles, and Others, G.D. Watt and J.V. Long, Reports (Latter-Day Saint's Book Depot, Liverpool, England, 1852-1886), 9:150
18 Wilford Woodruff's Journal, Scott Kenney, Ed. (Signature Books, Salt Lake City, UT 1984), 5:586 (July 28, 1861). Of this occasion, Elder Woodruff stated that "President Young preached one of the most interesting discourses ever delivered to the people. It was a sermon of sermons. Contained much interesting doctrine, revelation and principle." This sermon must have had a profound effect on Elder Woodruff, since he uttered a similar expression approximately forty years later, then as the President of the Church. He stated that "The Lord will never permit me or any other man who stands President of this Church to lead you astray. It is not in the programme. It is not in the mind of God. If I were to attempt that, the Lord would remove me out of my place, and so He will any other man who attempts to lead the children of men astray from the oracles of God and from their duty" (Official Declaration 1: Excerpts From Three Addresses by President Wilford Woodruff Regarding the Manifesto). This was also asserted by President Joseph F. Smith, then serving as Second Counselor in the First Presidency to John Taylor, when he stated that "God will not keep any man on Earth to preside over the Church to lead the Church of God astray. He will take him away first and all men should sustain the Authorities of the Church or Priesthood" (Wilford Woodruff's Journal, 8:148 (January 21, 1883)).
19 Augustine stated that "in no other subject is the danger of erring so great, or the progress so difficult, or the fruit of a careful study so appreciable." ("On the Holy Trinity, I.3.5," as cited in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Charles Herbermann, Ed. (The Encyclopedia Press, Inc., New York, NY, 1913), 7:409).
20 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 151
21 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, B.H. Roberts, Ed. (Deseret News Press, Salt Lake City, UT, 1908), 4:42
22 Two Lines of Communication
23 Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, 252
24 Cited by Keith Meservy, in "Evolution & the Origin of Adam" in CES Religious Educator's Symposium, BYU, August 16-18,1979, pg 225
25 Two Lines of Communication
26 "The Necessity of Biblical Infallibility," by Joseph Bowling, Church of the Great God, March 13, 2009

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